Lien vers les tableaux de données probantes et la liste des références (en Anglais)
Few studies have been published examining the prevention or treatment of spasticity or contracture using antispastic pattern positioning, range of motion exercises, stretching and/or splinting in the lower extremity. Kluding et al. (2008) reported that eight sessions of functional task practice combined with ankle joint mobilizations, provided over four weeks, resulted in increased ankle range of motion, compared with a group that received therapy only, in the chronic stage of stroke. The participants in the intervention group gained 5.7 degrees in passive ankle range of motion compared with 0.2 degrees in the control group (p<0.01).
The use of Botulinum toxin–type A (BTX-A) for treatment of lower-limb spasticity is not as well-studied compared with the upper extremity. A meta-analysis (Foley et al. 2010), which included the results from 8 studies reported a moderate increase in gait speed associated with BTX-A (SMD= 0.193±0.081, 95% CI 0.033 to 0.353, p<0.018). Kaji et al. (2010) randomized 120 patients with lower limb spasticity following a stroke of greater than six months post onset to receive a single treatment of 300 U Botox® or placebo. There was a significantly greater reduction in mean modified Ashworth Scale scores at weeks four, 6 and 8 in the treatment group compared with the control group; however, there were no significant differences between groups at week 10 or 12. Pittock et al. (2003) compared escalating doses of BTX-A with placebo and found that the highest dose (1,500 U Dysport ®) was associated with the greatest relief of calf spasticity compared with placebo at four, eight and 12 weeks following treatment. Lower doses (500 and 1,000 U) resulted in significant reductions in spasticity at week four only.
Intrathecal baclofen is popular treatment for spasticity in many populations including stroke, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy. Meythalar et al. (2002) performed a cross-over randomized controlled trial among individuals with chronic stroke. At one year the authors noted that spasticity had improved, as evidenced by a decline in Ashworth scores and reflex scores (p<0.01 for both); spasm frequency scores did not improve (p>0.05).